Increasing Self-Awareness

The holiday season is closing in and for many this means some days off, spending valuable time with your family and reflecting on the year that has passed. One of the reflections might be that you want to educate yourself further in 2019 to become an even better coach or leader. It is an admirable thought, to further your own education, but the question that should be asked is not why, but how. The why questions is already answered by wanting to learn more, you want to become a better version of yourself, great! But how will you do this, which courses will you attend, which books will you read and what podcasts will be prioritized in the limited amount of time you have available?

To answer this question in the best possible way you need to have self-awareness combined with a clear vision of your goals and where you want to go. In other words you should be able to objectively describe your own strengths and weaknesses, how you behave when you are under pressure and how you behave when things are going your way. This is something that most people struggle to do even though they might think they know how they behave in a certain situation or what their strengths and weaknesses are, but most people really do not know.

What can you do to increase your level of self-awareness and help you be sure of what you are good at and what you need to improve? Let’s look at four things that is possible to do without investing a lot of money and time while proven to give results.

  1. Meditate regularly. When speaking of low cost interventions this one is unrivaled at the top. If you are not already doing some meditation, this holiday season is the time to start. Begin with 10-15 minutes in the morning after you’re out of bed and gradually increase the minutes and the amount of times per day. Spending 5-10 minutes on meditation between tough meetings or difficult spells of work is the best recovery for your brain and gives you the chance to maintain a high level of thinking throughout the day. Don’t worry, your thoughts will interfere with the observation of your breathing, probably already after 10 seconds. Accept this and upon realizing that you are thinking of something, just direct yourself back to observing your breathing without labelling any feelings. Eventually you’ll be able to observe your breathing for longer and longer, deeper thought’s about yourself will emerge from your unconscious and this is what will help your self-awareness.
  2. 10-day Meditation retreat. If there’s one thing you should invest your time in next year it’s attending a 10-day retreat. Read my post about my latest retreat here. This is an investment that has a big pay-off in two direct ways, increasing your meditation technique level so that your every day meditation will be of a higher quality and it will of course raise your level of self-awareness monumentally. It’s also a big challenge to isolate yourself from the outside world for this many days which means you will be very proud of yourself after completing the 10-days. Most people will not even try to go attend a 10-day meditation retreat since they know (unconsciously) that they are slaves to their devices and the people around them. Don’t be like most people.
  3. Personality test. There are some personality tests that are pretty okay at showing you the mirror. There are also coach-personality tests which are more contextual and focus on how you are in the role of the coach. Doing these tests will probably not reveal anything new about yourself, but it will make you more aware of the things you, at least unconsciously, already know. For example you might know that you think accountability is important, but you might not know that for you it’s way off the scale important which means that this is something that sets you apart from most others. When doing these tests you can look at the results and ask yourself if it’s true, but you can also show the results to the people around you and ask them whether it’s true. Which brings us to our last tip of the day.
  4. A 360 Audit. You might think you know yourself pretty well and think you have a decent handle on how you behave in different situations. But what does the people around you say? To find out if you actually behave the way in which you think you behave there is only one option, ask the people you interact with most. This might be close family and friends but also colleagues (coaching staff), subordinates (players) and your boss (directors). A 360 audit is one of the more difficult things to do, especially if you feel insecure about yourself. But it’s can also be one of the most telling, revealing and rewarding things you can do to increase your own self-awareness and become a better person. So how can it be done? For example you can send a text to the people closest to you and ask them to list 1-3 things they think you are really good at and 1-3 things they think you can/need to improve. Ask them to be brutally honest and ensure them that you will not hold what they write / say against them. Regardless of what they come up with, make sure to answer with only “thank you for the feedback”.

If you do some or all of the above steps to increase your self-awareness you will have a better chance to decide how to further your own development and not only choose the first flashy course that you see online. However if you really want to make sure that you prioritize your time correctly you also need to have a clear goal and to know where you want to go in your career and in your life.


Football Braining Experience

I’m here in Lisbon reflecting on one of the best educational experiences I’ve just had here in the beautiful capital of Portugal. The course I attended was the Football Braining Experience from the World Football Academy, a course which takes psychology and translates it to the context of football and football language. This was the second time in as many years as the course has been held in Portugal, last year it was in Porto with me in attendance also there. Even though last years course was very good this years Football Braining Experience hit it out of the park for a clear cut home run. The most simple explanation for this is that the Football Braining (Brain-training) concept has evolved for one more year and improved. 

The course started on Tuesday morning at 8.00 am and the first day gave all the delegates a crash course in controlling their thoughts with the day ending 16 hours later at 12.00 am. This is generally not the normal way to start courses in coach education, but this is not a normal coaching course. The demands of everyone are high and if you do not want to improve or are afraid of getting outside of your comfort zone, well then a World Football Academy coaching course is not for you. However, if you do want to challenge yourself this is the best place to be. In total we had 50 hours of world class education in only 3,5 days. This condensed schedule was helped by time for reflection individually and in subgroups throughout every day. 

As you might imagine when you attend a top class course you take lots of notes to help the learning process in a short period of time. That’s why it’s so important to allow for a day after the course were you sit down and go through your notes, reflect and summarize them. This is something I’ve done for a couple of years and the processes of how it’s done continues to evolve. This time my biggest reflection has been on reflecting on your reflections and the importance of this for all coaches and leaders. But what does this reflecting on reflections mean? 

Most people go through life without reflecting on their actions and their subsequent consequences. Coaches who are developing teams and players are probably more used to reflecting on their sessions, team talks, media interviews and meetings with the board for example. Even though it’s difficult enough to find time during the season to reflect on the decisions you made it’s very important in order to figure out if you’re going in the right direction. Most coaches would probably agree with this statement. However, making time to reflect on your reflections seams over the top, right? 

What could possibly be the point of thinking of why you thought what you thought? Well, let’s look at it this way. Imagine you are analyzing the last game and after reflecting on the players’ performance you make the decision to drop a certain player. This seams straight forward enough; you reflected on the last game and made the decision you thought was the best for the team. However, if you reflect on this reflection you may find out that there might be other thoughts influencing your first reflection of the game. For example your reflections on the game might be influenced by your previous results (lost 3 straight vs winning 3 straight), pressure from board members or other external influences such as the media, agents, parents etc. These influences will probably not pop-up in your thinking while you are reflecting on the game, but if you reflect on your reflection you have a chance of identifying what controls your thought process and improve your next reflection. 


I just finished my second 10-day Vipassana meditation course in as many years yesterday. The first question I got from first time participants and non-participants was ‘how was it different this time?’. My answer is short and simple: It was less traumatic. Although after speaking to one of the servers at the course I recognize that this is very subjective for each individual, for him it was the other way around.

The thought occurred to me sometime during the ten days that it might be interesting for you to know more about this type of meditation retreat, especially if you’re thinking of the possibility to join one or if you’re just interested in meditation or personal development in general. So what I will do in this post is break down the general layout of the ten days and also provide links to more information about the meditation technique and the retreat. 

It turns out that these types of meditation retreats are very popular, the courses are fully booked and you have to be early and register immediately when it opens up to get in. This course was focused on a specific nationality so I was put on the waiting list when registering and got my confirmation a month before the course started. There is no cost for registering and you are only allowed to donate money after you have been on a ten day course. All Vipassana centers are run solely on donations and charity which makes it possible for everyone to join a course. 

We arrived to the meditation center in the afternoon on the day before the first day, registration closes at 6 pm and people start to drop in from noon and out. You fill out your registration form, hand over all of your valuables; cell phone, computers, wallet, books and writing material before you get your room assignment. First time students share rooms at this center while old students who have done at least one course get the luxury of their own small room. After dinner you come together in the meditation hall where instructions are given for what is expected of you during this ten day course and also what you shall practice when meditating the next day. The most important rule, the one that most people find difficult, is the rule about ‘noble silence’. This means that you shall not communicate with anyone, neither verbally nor non-verbally (this includes no eye contact, pointing etc), during the first nine days. An exception is made for the assistant teachers since you need to ask about the technique and the management that will help you with all your needs. On the tenth day the ‘noble silence’ is broken to easy transition back into the outside world. 

For ten days the program was as follows (with exceptions for the fourth and tenth day): Wake up at 0400, meditation 0430-0630, breakfast 0630-0800, group meditation 0800-0900, meditation 0900-1100, lunch 1100-1200, rest/interviews with teacher 1200-1300, meditation 1300-1430, group meditation 1430-1530, meditation 1530-1700, afternoon tea 1700-1800, group meditation 1800-1900, discourse 1900-2000, meditation 2000-2100, lights out 2200. The group meditation sittings are mandatory in the hall whereas the other meditation sessions can be done either in the hall or in your own room. For me this meant that I did between 45-90 mins in the meditation hall and the rest in my room during these sessions depending on how my body and brain was doing in the different days.

In the first three days you will learn the meditation technique of anapana where you condition your brain and your thinking to focus firstly on your breath and later on the sensations in a small area. The first day might feel like the longest day of your life since you are without all the external stimuli that you are so used to having all around you. However the second day usually is the first big obstacle for most to get through. On the fourth day you will start learning the technique of vipassana which includes a grueling two hour sitting where you do not change your posture (unless absolutely necessary). Then the second big obstacle arises on day six where you doubt yourself and your ability to practice this technique before your doubts passes away and you realize that there are not that many days left.

You will find that arising and passing away, or anicca, will be front and center when you are practicing vipassana and a word that will most certainly stick to your brain. There is no point trying to explain the technique of vipassana since it’s something you need to experience yourself. However, the difference from mindfulness and meditation where you focus on a specific object as your breathing or a mantra to vipassana is that you don’t focus your thinking – you only observe without passing judgement. This will help you realize that everything is impermanent after observing your sensations change during and between meditation, sensations arising and passing away – anicca. There is only one thing that is for certain in the world and that is that everything is changing all the time. 

What is very good with the vipassana meditation retreat is that it’s non-sectarian, meaning there is no organized religion, no cult or sect that forces you to follow certain rituals or do some specific chanting. The teaching is based in science and very rational, in other words; it makes sense. The teacher of the technique, the late S. N. Goenka is in addition quite funny in the video discourses held each evening with entertaining stories that reinforce the technique. These discourses are an explanation of what you have experienced during the day when practicing and answers all the questions that popped up in your brain during the day. Thereafter you will receive new instructions for the next day which you again practice during the day and that are explained during the discourse in the evening. 

For anyone who is thinking about going to a ten day vipassana mediation course my recommendation is definitely to try it. What you will get out of it is impossible to guess, the individual differences are probably enormous. However, in the worst case scenario you get to challenge yourself by; being away from your family, friends and work, spending ten days without talking to anyone, being without your precious cellphone and staying off social media. And you know what, chances are that the world will still be there when your ten days are done… 

For more information about vipassana, meditation centers and how to register: 


The Football Game

Before you learn about coaching and how to coach the first step is to make sure that the context of this coaching is clear. This means that we must first have an understanding of the characteristics of the sport before we start learning about what and how to coach. The purpose of this post is to give you an objective description of the game, a frame of reference for your coaching. When signing up to be the coach of a football team, you signed up to coach the game of football. Therefore it is a good idea to first make sure that we have defined the characteristics of the game so that we know what to improve. You might think that some of what will follow is a given and so simple you can’t believe it. However, when looking at training sessions with youth players especially, it could be argued that these “simple things” are not understood by most coaches. 

First and foremost football is a game. A game is defined as a competitive activity played according to rules that are specific to that sport. Moreover, football is a team sport which is defined as two or more players working together and competing against another team in order to win the game. This first part is extremely obvious but for some reason forgotten or not understood by many coaches around the world. Given the fact that football is a team sport and a game, how can it be possible for coaches to instruct players to be alone with or without a ball and no team-mates or opponents? The simple answer is that these coaches either do not know that football is a team sport and a game, or they are coaching a different sport.

Football is played with 11 players on each team and a referee on the pitch. This means that there are always 23 people on the pitch that influence the outcome of the game. In addition you might have more referees on the side of the pitch that also influence the game. This means that the game of football is extremely complex. Not only do you have 10 team-mates that you cannot control directly as a player, but you also have 11 opponents that you can definitely not control. And to make life as a football player even harder, the referee is not always correct in every decision. The fact that the game is played continuously over 90 minutes with only a half-time break and no timeouts or other longer stoppages (other than due to injuries and substitutions) makes it an even more difficult game. There are so many moving parts that you as the coach and the players on your team cannot control directly unlike in other sports where there are more longer breaks or the possibility for you as the coach to use a timeout. Since the game is so complex it is simplified for younger players in order to gradually increase complexity from an early age in line with the development of their brains. This simplification is done by reducing the number of players on both teams, making the pitch smaller and reducing the playing time. How this simplification is done could be different depending on where in the world you are since it’s the local federations who decide over this.

As previously noted, football is a team game and as all other games – individual or team games – you play to win. In football you win by; within the rules of the game, score at least one more goal than the opponent. The ’within the rules of the game’ part is important to notice. Just imagine that you were allowed to pick up the ball with your hands and run to the other side of the pitch where you could throw the ball into the opponents goal and be awarded a goal. It would be much easier to control the ball with your hands than trying to control this spherical object we call a ball with your feet. However, since the rules of the game states that you are not allowed to control the ball with your hands (exception made for the goalkeeper inside the penalty box) you cannot score a goal in football this way. This is only one example of a rule that makes the game of football more difficult than it could be. It should be noted that in some competitions it can be of a higher order for a team to not lose a game than winning. This could be the case if the one point will help the team reach a greater objective like winning the league, advancing in the cup or not being relegated.

When new coaches are asked at a coaching course what the objective of football is they often answer things like ”playing well”, ”keeping possession” or ”having fun”. No, these non-contextual words are not what football is about. The objective of football is to; within the rules of the game, score at least one more goal than the opponent and as a consequence win the game. Does this mean that the players shouldn’t have fun? Of course not. Playing a game and competing against others is what is fun and a basic element of human nature, we humans love to compete! It doesn’t matter if it’s football or chess, the competitiveness of different games and your possibilities as a player to make decisions and influence the outcome on your own is what makes it fun. Imagine you are playing chess and you’re constantly getting told by the chess coach what move to execute next, would you want to keep playing chess? What if you where not allowed to play chess to win, but the way you moved the pieces was regarded as more important. Would you keep playing or would you eventually throw the chess board up in the air and walk away? 

What can we as coaches learn from this analogy? One thing is that players will have more fun if no one tells them what to do all the time, something that is especially important for youth coaches to remember. The other thing would be to remember that it is a game and as a coach you need to let your players compete. This means players will both win and lose since these two results are equally present in game. But when they play they should at least ”keep possession” all the time, right? No. It’s important to understand that “keeping possession” which means to have control of the ball within your team, is not an objective by itself and that there is something within the game of football that is of a higher order, more important than keeping the ball, namely scoring one more goal than the opponent. In football you actually want to give the ball to the opponent at least once in every game, when you score a goal. Therefore if a coach says that the objective of football is to “keep possession”, the coach is saying that they don’t want to score a goal. With this said we must also recognize that without having the ball you cannot score a goal (unless the opponent scores an own goal). There could be moments during a game where having the ball might be very important, and possibly more important than trying to score a goal. Imagine your team are 1-0 up and it’s 5 minutes left of the game, if you are able to keep the ball in your team for the rest of the game you will be guaranteed to win. However, in general, having the ball for the sake of having the ball makes no sense and is not football.

But it must be equally important to ”play well”, right? Well, what does ’play well’ mean? Imagine that you and your friend are watching a game and you might think that team A is playing really well. However, your friend doesn’t think so and says as a matter of fact that team B is playing much better! Who is right, you or your friend? Since ’playing well’ is a subjective interpretation by whomever is observing a game, you are both right. As a coach it might be good to remember that what you think is ’playing well’, might not be the same as your board or director of coaching thinks. These subjective interpretations might land you as a coach in trouble or even without a job. To ”play well” is someones subjective preference of how a certain team executes the different team functions and therefore of a lower order than the objective of the game. To summarize, the objective of the game of football is to; within the rules of the game, score at least one more goal than the opponent.

What is coaching football?

If you venture online you can find many different resources online about how you can coach football. These resources usually have their starting point in someone else’s subjective application of coaching football and their particular environment. That means that everything is based on someone else’s players and often with an assumption that you as a coach has a certain amount of knowledge. This in itself doesn’t need do be a problem as long as you as the coach who are visiting these resources understand that this is the case. However, you will have a problem if your own subjective application of coaching football takes someone else’s subjective application as the starting point. Subjectivity x Subjectivity = Chaos. In this post, we will look at what coaching football is from a philosophical starting point. This will give you as the coach an objective knowledge reference that you can use as the starting point when you coach in different environments.

The first step in creating this objective reference for coaching football is to clarify that it is something that happens within the context of the game of football. As described earlier, this game has different team functions; attacking, defending and transitioning, with the objective of winning which is done by scoring at least one more goal than the opponent. The team functions have different team tasks, when your team is attacking they are executing the team tasks of building up to create chances and (hopefully) scoring while when defending they are disturbing the build up of the opponent and preventing scoring. Each player on the pitch contributes to the respective team task by executing different football actions, i.e. passing, creating space, pressing, blocking passing options etc. All football actions is communication, decision making and execution of that decision. To summarize, in football it is the players who the decisions on the pitch which is why football is called a players sport and not a coaches sport. 

Just imagine that you as the coach would ignore the context of the game when delivering your training sessions. How would that look? Well, it could for example mean that you have activities where players are kicking the ball around cones, executing kicking the ball patterns (”passing patterns”) without opponents and other, similar activities without the presence or need for communication (verbal and non-verbal) and decision making. Execution for the sake of execution. Does this example sound familiar? Unfortunately there are many coaches all over the world who mistakenly spend most of their training sessions conducting similar circus tricks or different types of track and field exercises like running around the pitch. This is not coaching football, these are examples of coaching circus tricks and coaching track and field. Coaching football is you as the coach helping the players improve their football actions. But how can you improve a football action without any communication and decision making? It is impossible.

As you know, the game of football is played 11 against 11 and in youth football for younger players, the game is simplified with fewer players on each team to make it less complex. This means that it is impossible to improve football by coaching each player individually. As a coach who is coaching football you must take the player’s team-mates, opponents and the context of the game into consideration when coaching. You are only coaching football if you are coaching in the context of the different team functions; attacking, defending and transitioning, team tasks and the opponent. When you are coaching football you are improving the individual players’ football actions to improve the quality of the different team tasks and team functions in order for your team to perform better and increase the chance of winning.

As discussed earlier, a football action is communication, decision making and execution of a decision. When you are coaching football, the relevant communication is there for all players; team-mates, opponents, team function, team task and possibly game specific information (time left,  score, cup or league game etc). You have as a coach made sure that the player has all the relevant information from their surroundings through this communication that it is possible to make a decision and execute it. When you have made sure that the communication from the players’ surroundings are as close to what the player will see in the game as possible you have created the basis for coaching football. Because the surrounding is like the game, the player will start to make decisions that will also happen in the game. These decisions may be good or bad, the execution of these decisions may also be better or worse. This is what you coach. 

When coaching football your players are making decisions and executing them in a game-like environment. Helping the player to make better decisions and execute them better is the job of the football coach (more on this later). Improving players football actions is improving their decision making and execution of decision which is what coaching football is. This can only be done in the context of team-mates, opponents and the different team functions and team tasks.   

New coaches

Every year there are many new coaches all over the world who want to help players improve and enjoy the game. Most of these coaches are parents to one or more of the players, not all of these parents coach because of their love of the game but they do coach out of love at some level. Maybe some of these parents had to take the role of coach for their children’s team just because no one else would. On the other hand you also have former players with different levels of experience that start to coach every year. You have the former professional player who has a lot of experience from the game, but may lack theoretical knowledge or an understanding of how to coach. There is also the former player who realized at an early age that the only part of their body that were good at playing football was the brain and therefore want to coach instead. Some new coaches might be a combination of what is described above. 

What does all of these new coaches have in common? Whether it be the parent coach, the former pro player or the young kid who decided to start coaching? Well, they are all human beings and they all step into the role of the coach. However, they do so with a vast difference of knowledge and experience which gives them all different starting points for coaching their players. The objective for all these new coaches are the same because they are coaching the same game. This means that all new coaches should have the same starting point. You could call it a common level of minimum knowledge about the game and the coaching of football players. 

We know that this is not the case and that there is a very differencing level of knowledge about football and coaching for new coaches coming into the game. This is also something the governing body of the sport, FIFA knows and the reason why your local football federation offers coaching courses. Now, you would think that these coaching courses, especially the first one for new coaches, would all look the same all over the world. It is the same sport that is played on all continents of the world is it not? A football player in China has the same number of team-mates, opponents on an equally big pitch as the player in England. However, when comparing the courses and the literature that is distributed by different football federations all over the world you might start to think that they are educating coaches to coach different sports. 

What is fascinating is that on most coaching courses by the federations to new coaches there are little or no talk about what the game actually is. Usually the coach educator dives straight into handing out different drills or exercises, tricks for keeping the children under control and showing the new coaches “how it’s supposed to be done”. Just imagine you are a student at a university learning advanced math and your professor comes into the classroom and gives you the answers to the equation, but never teaches you the principles for solving the equation on your own. This is football education in most places of the world today. You receive a problem; improving football players, and some nice person with a badge of the federation (or a top club) provides you with an answer. The problem is that you do not know if this answer is the correct one, and it never is. Since the answer you received was derived from a different equation (i.e. other players than yours) it can never be 100% correct. Would it not be better if the coach education taught you the underlying principles for improving football players? 

As a new coach, learning about the characteristics of the game and of coaching football will give you a much greater chance of reaching the objective of improving football players. If you as a coach has an objective reference for what the game is and what coaching football is you are in a much better position to help your players improve than if you do not. When you have attained a basic theoretical knowledge of football and coaching you will be able to conduct training sessions that improve your players and lets them enjoy the game. Of course, having the theoretical knowledge and objective references for the game and coaching doesn’t mean you will be the best coach the world has ever seen; how you apply this knowledge is the next step in your education to become a football coach. 

Improving Communication

We know that as a football coach your role is to improve the quality of your players football actions. This means that the reason for the coach to be in the training session is to improve the communication between players within the different team functions and team tasks by improving the decision making of the individual players. By helping players make better decisions you as the coach are improving the quality of your players football actions and as a result you are improving football. 

Imagine taking over a new team before the upcoming season. You start by analyzing the squad and notice that there are a lot of new players that has arrived during the break. What does this mean for you as the new coach of this team with all the new players? Will the level of communication between the players in the team be high or will it be lower than if the team stayed intact during the break? Now, you might be thinking that the level of communication will obviously be lower with new players than if all players from last season would still be there. The question for you as the coach will be; how can you improve the communication between players as soon as possible?

There are two general ways of coaching your players, either you are coaching them explicitly, by more or less telling them what to do, or you are coaching them implicitly, letting the players learn from their own experiences in different situations. When you are coaching your players explicitly you are using different references and explaining for your players what they could do in a given situation. This reference coaching (explicit learning) is an important tool for any coach and hopefully your references have their starting point in the objective characteristics of football and not your subjective feelings or opinions.

When you let your players experience different situations from which they can learn the players have a greater chance of retaining knowledge through implicit learning. This situational coaching is a different way of coaching players that is not easy to do well and demands a lot from you as the coach. For you to be good at situational coaching you will need to plan for certain situations to happen that will make the players learn whatever it is that you have set out as the learning objective.    

Let’s get back to you and your new team with all the new players. How should you coach your team in the beginning of the season given the fact that the level of communication is low? Would you use mainly reference coaching or situational coaching? In order to answer this question you need to consider your external factors, such as; what age group are these players, are they professional or amateur, are you expected to win now or develop the team/club? You may have different or additional external factors in your situation that will further complicate the decision of how to improve the communication in your team.   

Imagine that the team you are taking over is a professional team. Generally speaking you will have players with a higher level of decision making than if you were coaching an amateur team. How does this effect the way you set out to improve the communication in your team? Since your players are good at making decisions on the pitch, maybe it’s a good idea to use more situational coaching to let them experience situations that they can learn implicitly from in order to improve the communication. This does not mean that you will never use reference coaching of course, since you as the new coach needs to establish your references with the team. However, coaching players with a higher level of decision making could mean that it’s a good idea to use more situational coaching than reference coaching.

Now, if we imagine for a second that the team you are taking over with all these new players are an amateur team, would that change how you set out to improve the communication between players? 

At the amateur level you will generally have players with a lower level of decision making than at the professional level. In other words, the amateur players do not have all the tools to make good decisions as the professional player has. This means that you as the coach will need to provide the players with more tools by establishing clear references for them using reference coaching. It does not mean that you should tell the players what to do all the time, but that it might be a good idea to do more reference coaching than situational coaching in the beginning until the communication between players improves.

As you can imagine a good coach needs to be able to do both reference coaching and situational coaching in order to improve players. Analyzing all the external factors in your environment and deciding how to improve the communication between your players is the art of coaching. Knowing about reference coaching and situational coaching will let you as a coach improve your coaching and gives you a higher chance of improving your players. 


The Football Coach

What is the purpose of the football coach within the game of football? We know what the coach does in training when interacting with the players, we call that coaching football. But why is the football coach present in training and what is it that the person in this role is supposed to do? In order to answer these questions we will take a philosophical approach to the game and see where the football coach fits.

The starting point for coaching football is the objective characteristics of the game. The fact is that football is a game with a set of rules, it is played on a surface that has certain boundaries within a certain time frame. In order to win this game your team needs to score minimum one more goal than the opponent who are also trying to win. The number of players, the size of the surface and the time that you play the game might vary depending on certain external factors as for example the age of the players and your local federation and their adaptations of the rules.

In every game of football when one team has control of the ball they are attacking and the other team is defending. When control of the ball is lost one team is transitioning from attacking to defending while the other team is transitioning from defending to attacking. This is what is called team functions, the whole team is constantly either attacking, defending or transitioning between these team functions during a game. When attacking, your team is either building up in order to create scoring opportunities or trying to convert these chances by scoring. At the same time the opponent is defending by disrupting your build up or disrupting your attempt to score. Together with transitioning to attacking and transitioning to defending these are different team tasks that your team is executing in every game.

Within these different team functions and team tasks your players are constantly interacting with their surrounding. For example, when your team is attacking and building up, your players are interacting with the field, their teammates and their opponents in order to create a chance to score a goal. They do this by executing different football (inter)actions such as passing, creating space, dribbling, shooting etc. However, before your player can pass the ball, the player first communicates with their surrounding in order to know where the ball is, where their teammates and opponents are, and of course where they themselves are positioned on the field. It is only when they have this information, the non-verbal and verbal communication of their surroundings that the player is able to make a decision. If the player decides to pass the ball they execute this decision by kicking the ball in a certain way to a teammate from a certain position, at a certain moment, in a certain direction, at a certain speed. This means that a football (inter)action is communication, decision making and the execution of that decision within the context of the team function and team task.

At a higher level of football the game is played at a higher tempo than at a lower level. The amount of space and time available for the players to make decisions and execute these decisions at a higher level is less than at a lower level. This means that players who play at a higher level needs to execute football actions faster than a player at a lower level. At a lower level, players have more space and time available for executing the same football action than at a higher level. The football actions themselves are the same on all levels of football, for example you press, pass and dribble both at a lower level and a higher level. However, the difference between a lower level and a higher level is the space and time available for each player to make a decision and execute that decision.

In order to go from a lower level to a higher level your players need to make better decisions and execute these decisions better. In other words, the quality of their football actions needs to improve. A higher quality football action is better communication (non-verbal & verbal), better decision making and execution of that decision. When there is less space and less time, the quality of communication between teammates need to be higher as well as the quality of the individual players decision making that also needs to be higher.

The question then becomes, how are your players going to improve the quality of their football actions? And this is where you, in the role as the football coach comes into play. As a football coach your role is to improve the quality of your players football actions. This means that the reason for the coach to be in the training session is to improve the communication between players within the different team functions and team tasks by improving the decision making of the individual players. By helping players make better decisions you as the coach are improving the quality of your players football actions and as a result you are improving football.


Implementing a playing style

How do you implement a new playing style in a team that have been used to play in a different way? First, let’s define what a playing style is; in the game of football you win by scoring minimum one more goal than the opponent. There are three different team functions for every football team in every game, namely attacking, defending and transitioning. The playing style is HOW you attack, defend and transition, or in other words; the subjective application of the team functions with your external factors. The playing style is a reference for the communication between your players when making decisions in the game and executing these decisions on the pitch.

As a coach you probably have a certain how you want your team to attack, defend and transition. Hopefully this how is based on the combination of your external factors, like the quality of the players in your squad, the league your team is in, the culture of the club and country you are working in etc. With the game of football as your objective starting point, you as the coach adapt to your external factors and apply your subjective how to the different team functions in your environment. This is what is called a playing style.

Imagine taking over a team before the season and coming to the conclusion after analysing the different external factors that a different playing style than before needs to be implemented. The question now becomes, how do you do that? How do you implement a new playing style?

One way of doing it is to begin by telling the players what to do in a certain situation within one of the team functions. In other words you are for example telling the players the how of attacking. What could be a potential problem with this method of top-down coaching? Well, one question worth asking is if the player after being told what to do will execute the decision of the player or the coach when attacking. Another question is if the learning experience may be limited since the player is only being told what to do in a certain number of situations. If a different situation arises there might not be a clear reference for the player to make a decision that is in line with the playing style.

A different way of implementing a playing style is to approach the learning process from the other way around. Instead of telling the players what to do in a certain team function, you as the coach manufacture situations in training that create a problem that the players must solve. It just so happens that the solution to this particular problem, the how of solving attacking for example, is the how you want your team to attack. After letting your players experience a certain problem in the training session you can guide them by creating a reference for their decision making in accordance to your playing style. When your players show the desired behaviour in training you might emphasise this by for example showing a video clip after the session or before the next training session. This way you let the players experience something before you make them realise what they have done which will improve the learning effect.

Now, if you take over a team mid-season you might need to tell the players what to do in order to make a quick change of playing style. If, however you have a preseason to prepare, or are working with younger players, you will probably notice an increased learning effect by letting the players experience situations before you provide the reference of how your team should play.

What language?

When you are coaching at a club you might have a lot of resources at your disposal in the form of coaches and other people who come from outside football. The reason all of the coaches and people from outside football is in your office is because they are supposed to help you and your team. These people from outside football might call themselves different things like ”mental coaches”, ”strength and conditioning coaches”, ”performance analyst” or something else that they invented in a university hall.

It’s important to remember that all of these people are there to help your players improve and perform to increase the chance of winning games. However, this may not be the starting point for these different people from outside football. There is a risk that they step into the football world with  their own motives for using their speciality with your team. Without understanding the context of improving players, they may implement ’improving their own speciality’ with your players. Instead of contributing to the improvement of the team and the football player, these people from outside football are improving their own speciality / technique / niche and using the players as tools to reach their own objective. This is a problem since it should be the other way around; the objective is to improve the team and the players, the tools are what this specialist from outside football brings to the table and the football coach is the one who decides which tool to use at what time.

The most intriguing question is how it’s possible that these specialists from outside football can hijack the coaching process and turn players into their tools? Firstly it’s important to understand that these people from outside football may not know the context, they may not understand what football is even if they say that they do. Secondly, these often highly educated people from outside football are experts within their speciality which means that they may not understand their place within the hierarchy of coaching football. This is not their fault since they are not educated in a football context, but an academic context or in some instances, the context of another sport.

What you see is that for some football coaches it is difficult to make these specialists from outside football aware of the context that is improving the team by coaching football. This is often due to the language barrier between the academic world and the football world. These specialists from outside football may use language straight out of the laboratory at the university that the football coach does not understand. This could be intimidating for the football coach and makes it difficult to establish the context. The point of least resistance is to let the academic mumbojumbo specialist do whatever they want in order to reduce the risk of a conflict. This is probably the main reason that makes it possible for these specialists from outside football to hijack the coaching process.

It is your responsibility as the football coach to make sure that the specialists that you bring into the game are made aware of the context and what role they fill within this context of coaching football. In addition it’s your responsibility to make sure everyone on your coaching staff, including the specialists from outside football speak the same language; football language. This language problem is such a big problem that football federations are educating football coaches in academic mumbojumbo so that they have a bigger chance of interpreting what the specialists are talking about. This is of course the world upside down. When these specialists step into our football world, they are the ones that should be educated in ’pressing’, ’passing’ and ’creating space’, not the other way around.

For football coaches who have the possibility to use specialists from outside football it’s important to remember that you are the one who is responsible for making them understand the context. If they are made aware of what their job is they can become a valuable resource with a range of tools that will help your main objective of improving football.